CIVIL RIGHTS TOUR

CIVIL RIGHTS TOUR


Chapel Hill Bus Station 1946Chapel Hill Bus Station 1947

TRAILWAYS BUS STATION

311
,
Chapel Hill
NC
Cross street: 
Construction type: 
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  • Fri, 09/16/2016 - 4:04pm by SteveR

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311
,
Chapel Hill
NC
Cross street: 
Construction type: 
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Trailways Bus Station, also known as the Chapel Hill Bus Station, the Greyhound Bus Station, and the Union Bus Station, was built in 1946. It was a "segregated" structure, and had separate entrances and waiting rooms according to race.

Chapel Hill Bus Station 1946

1946, view south east (image courtesy of UNC)

Chapel Hill Bus Station 1947

1947, view east; note "Colored Waiting Room" sign (image courtesy of UNC)

 

On April 9, 1947, eight African American and eight white members of CORE (known as the Freedom Riders) set out from Washington, D.C. on Greyhound and Trailways buses; on April 12, both buses arrived in Chapel Hill. As the buses departed Chapel Hill for Greensboro on April 13, four of the riders were arrested. The commotion aboard the buses drew a large crowd of spectators, including several white taxi drivers. The men were taken to the police station, with a fifty dollar bond placed on each man. As white rider James Peck got off the bus to pay their bonds, a taxi driver struck him in the head.  In May 1947, those members who had been arrested went on trial and were sentenced. The riders unsuccessfully appealed their sentences. On March 21, 1949, they surrendered at the courthouse in Hillsborough and were sent to segregated chain gangs.

(The above is from https://www.stoppingpoints.com/north-carolina/sights.cgi?marker=Journey+...)

Sometime between 1960 and 1964, when faced with "sit-in's" and other protests, the Bus Station Grill removed its lunch counter stools and conducted standup food service, irregardless of race.

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Colonial DrugstoreColonial ad, 1963  Colonial Drugstore 1964Colonial DrugsWEWB 2016

COLONIAL DRUGSTORE

450
,
Chapel Hill
NC
Construction type: 
Type: 

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  • Wed, 10/05/2016 - 7:21am by SteveR

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450
,
Chapel Hill
NC
Construction type: 
Type: 

 

Opened in 1951 at this location (the prior location of Milton's Clothing Cupboard), the business closed in 1996. It is now the location of the West End Wine Bar.

On February 28, 1960, there was a "sitdown protest" inside the store at its dining counter by a group of African American high school students from nearby Lincoln High School. The next day, approximately one hundred black youths picketed in front of Colonial Drug and several other segregated businesses on West Franklin Street. The store was protested in front of numerous times over the years, and it never desegregated/integrated until the The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed.

Colonial Drugstore

Colonial ad, 1963

Ad in the Chapel Hill Weekly, 1963

  Colonial Drugstore 1964

1964

Colonial Drugs

John Carswell and son "removing" Lincoln High School student James Brittain from the store (Photograph by Al Amon)

 

John Carswell, the proprietor of the Colonial Drug Store, did not believe that the movement in Chapel Hill was an authentic expression of the feelings of local black residents.  Apparently, the FBI convinced him that the protests were the work of communist agitators from Berkeley, California.  These outsiders, Carswell believed, "picked a lot of gullible teenagers in high school. . ." to start local problems.  Carswell's drug store was the main focus of local black youths during the Chapel Hill Civil Rights movement.  Carswell felt that the youths had no reason to target his business, as he "...resented the fact that they would turn against me. . . the one that had been good to them."  
(from an interview of John Carswell by Wendy Watriss and Lois Gilman, August 1974, Interview 103, tape recording and transcript, Oral History Program, Manuscript Department, Duke University Library)

The Colonial was also known locally as the home of the "Big O," a beverage made from fresh-squeezed oranges similar to orangeade.

WEWB 2016

2016

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Brady's 1959

BRADY'S RESTAURANT

‎1505
,
Chapel Hill
NC
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Construction type: 
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  • Thu, 09/01/2016 - 3:23pm by SteveR

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‎1505
,
Chapel Hill
NC
Cross street: 
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

Brady's opened in 1941 and closed in the early 1980s. The Siena Hotel was constructed on the site of Brady's.
 
Brady's 1959
Brady's ad, 1959
 
In February 1964, 26 Civil Rights demonstrators were arrested while staging a sit-in at Brady’s. 

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PINES RESTAURANT

,
Chapel Hill
NC

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  • Sat, 09/10/2016 - 9:30am by SteveR

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,
Chapel Hill
NC

 

View west, 1960s

Aerial view (includes hotel)

Aerial view (includes hotel)

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Chapel Hill Post Office 1921Chapel Hill Post Office 1920sChapel Hill Post Office 1924Chapel Hill Post Office 1931Chapel Hill Post Office 1939

U.S. POST OFFICE (1917)

179
,
Chapel Hill
NC
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  • Fri, 09/16/2016 - 4:05pm by SteveR

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179
,
Chapel Hill
NC
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Built in 1917, renovated in 1937. It is still in use as a U.S. Post Office (and court rooms, with public space in the basement)

Chapel Hill Post Office 1921

1921

Chapel Hill Post Office 1920s

1920s

Chapel Hill Post Office 1924

1924

Chapel Hill Post Office 1931

1931

Chapel Hill Post Office 1939

1939 (photo by Marion Post Wolcott)

Chapel Hill Post Office 1940s

1940s

CHPO 1963

December 1963 (photo by Jim Wallace)

 

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Watts 1955Watts 1975

WATTS HOTEL

NC Highway 15-501
,
Chapel Hill
NC
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  • Fri, 09/16/2016 - 4:06pm by SteveR

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NC Highway 15-501
,
Chapel Hill
NC
Architectural style: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

View south east

View south east, 1961

Watts 1955

Aerial photograph excerpt, 1955 (circled in red)

Watts 1975

Aerial photograph excerpt, showing additions/expansions, 1975 (circled in red)

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ORANGE COUNTY COURTHOUSE (SIXTH - 1954)

106
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1953
Architect/Designers: 
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,
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  • Thu, 08/11/2016 - 8:31am by gary

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106
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1953
Architect/Designers: 
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,
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Rendering of New Courthouse (History of the Town of Hillsborough)

Prior to construction of the courthouse, the Webb Warehouse stood at this location (the northwest corner of S. Churton and E. Margaret.) It served as a storage facility for the nearby Webb Tobacco Co.

The warehouse became generic storage after the Webb Co. left downtown Hillsborough, and, in its final iteration, a garage and repair shop for Orange County.

Old Webb warehouse - back of the building (large gable end) is visible at the center of the picture. (UNC postcard collection)

 

New courthouse under construction, 1953 (History of the Town of Hillsborough)

(Below in italics is from the National Register listing; not verified for accuracy by this author.)

Architect Archie Royal Davis, AIA, of Chapel Hill and Durham, designed this two-story, side-gabled, Colonial Revival-style building with Beaux Arts detailing. The seven-bay-wide main block has a Flemish-bond brick exterior and parapeted gables with interior end chimneys. A three-bay-wide gable pavilion projects from the center of the façade; its pediment contains a modillion cornice and a shield and swag motif, the swag duplicated in plaques on the façade between the first- and second-floor windows. The recessed central entrance is a double-leaf three-panel door with a leaded-glass transom in an inset, paneled bay. The bay has a classical surround with Corinthian columns supporting an entablature with modillions and a broken swans-neck pediment. It is accessed by an uncovered brick and concrete terrace with a brick knee wall and cast-stone balustrade at the sides. The building has eight-over-twelve wood-sash windows on the first floor, eight-over- eight windows on the second floor, all with flat brick arches, molded surrounds, and wood windowsills. A three-stage cupola with a copper roof is centered on the roofline. One-story, flat-roofed brick wings, each two bays wide, flank the main section and feature brick parapets with stone balustrades at the roofline. A two-story, flat-roofed wing extends from the center of the rear (south) elevation; it is eight bays deep with brick pilasters between the bays and has windows matching those on the main section. A one-story hyphen at the south end of the wing connects to a one-story, parapet-roofed brick section with eight-over-twelve wood- sash windows. A two-story, flat-roofed wing at the left rear (southeast) corner of the building has a parapet roof with a wide brick beltcourse near the parapet, stone detailing, and connects to a one-story, hip-roofed addition just east of the main building. The large, two-story-with-basement, hip-roofed building to the east of the courthouse is five bays wide and seven bays deep with five gabled dormers on the east elevation. The center three bays of the façade (north) and left (east) elevations project slightly with a parapet roof with wide cornice and two cast-stone beltcourses each. Entrances at the basement level of the east elevation are sheltered by a hip-roofed metal porch that extends around the projecting bay and is supported by Tuscan columns on low brick piers. The main building was constructed between 1953 and 1954 just south of the 1845 courthouse. The subsequent additions have overwhelmed the 1950s building, rendering it non-contributing.

07.31.2016 (G. Kueber)

Non-contributing, so we should really just tear down this courthouse, as it has no historical architectural value to downtown Hillsborough? As you can tell in my picture above, the historic building is overwhelmed to the point of being unrecognizable. I can't even tell it is a building vs. a giant pile of bricks.

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ORANGE COUNTY COURTHOUSE (1845)

104
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1845
Architect/Designers: 
Builders: 
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,
National Register: 
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The fourth courthouse in this location, built in 1845, with a clock purportedly dating from the 1760s

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  • Fri, 08/05/2016 - 1:58pm by gary

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104
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1845
Architect/Designers: 
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(Courtesy University of North Carolina postcard collection.) Image c. 1910-1915

From the National Register nomination:

One of the earliest and most architecturally distinguished courthouses in North Carolina, this brick temple-form Greek Revival-style building was designed and built by John Berry, a well-known local architect and builder. The two-story building is three bays wide and five bays deep with a full portico with classical pediment and entablature supported by four fluted Doric columns. Such fine details as the Flemish-bond brick walls, wide cornice, twelve-over-twelve wood-sash windows with flat brick arches, keystones, and stone sills, and the central double-leaf door with fanlight, brick voussoirs, and keystone remain intact. There are four interior brick chimneys and the original two-stage cupola clock tower surmounts the building. The courthouse is at least the fourth on this site. The interior retains most of its original finish, including a pair of open-string Federal-style stairs with foliate brackets, turned balusters and newels and heavy molded handrails, four-panel doors, symmetrically molded frames with cornerblocks, and well-proportioned pilastered mantels. The upstairs courtroom was renovated in the 1880s.

"Very old courthouse in Hillsboro, North Carolina." Marion Post Wolcott, Farm Service Adminstration. December 1939. Retrieved from LOC.

Looking southeast, March 1983. (NCSHPO via Tom Campanella / builtbrooklyn.org)

A new Orange County Courthouse, directly to the south across East Margaret Lane, was built in the 1950s.

07.02.2016 (G. Kueber)

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(SIXTH) HILLSBOROUGH JAIL / MAGISTRATE'S OFFICE

125
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1928
/ Modified in
1996
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Local Historic District: 
Type: 

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  • Thu, 08/11/2016 - 3:11pm by gary

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125
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1928
/ Modified in
1996
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Local Historic District: 
Type: 

 

Jail, 1950s (History of the Town of Hillsborough)

1925-1935, view north across the Eno River. The jail is the two-story building to the right.

While a handsome Neoclassical Revival building, I am primarily noting that reports of this building's demise have been greatly exagerated. Stuart Dunaway notes in his "History of Town Lots - Addendum 2015" rather emphatically that "the building shown on the post card does not exist today."

The building was constructed in 1925 as a replacement for the old (fifth) jail that stood on the west side of Court Street.

1943 Sanborn map, showing the county jail.

From the National Register nomination:

"Constructed as the Orange County Jail, this impressive two-story, Neoclassical-style building faces the Orange County Courthouse to its west, but has been significantly enlarged and altered at the north and east. The building is three bays wide and six bays deep with four brick pilasters supporting a wide entablature and a pedimented gable on the façade. The pediment has a denticulated cornice and bulls-eye window with brick voussoirs and keystones in the gable. Two-bay-wide, pedimented wings project slightly from the right (south) and left (north) elevations and there are two interior brick chimneys. The building has nine-over-nine and six- over-six wood-sash windows with a single eight-over-eight window on the left end of the second-floor façade. The nine-light-over-one-panel door on the right end of the façade has a four-light transom and is sheltered by a full-width, hip-roofed porch supported by square columns with a denticulated cornice at the roofline and a low railing at the second-floor level. A number of windows on the side and rear elevations have been bricked in or boarded over. A one-story, flat-roofed wing on the left elevation connects to a two-story, front-gabled brick wing with a pedimented gable which connects in turn to a two-story, side-gabled wing with an inset entrance on the north elevation and a one-story, flat-roofed addition at its rear (east). The building has also been enlarged in 1996 with a series of one- and two-story, flat-roofed sections at the rear, one of which connects to a large gabled wing with projecting gables along East Margaret Street. The side and rear additions have nine-over-nine windows and there is a metal fire stair at the north end. The east addition has a wide cornice and small six-light windows at the basement level. Historically, the deputy lived in an apartment above the jail.

I find it silly that this is not a contributing structure to the National Register district.

07.31.2016 (G. Kueber)

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