SCHOOLS

SCHOOLS


Buildings that are or once were schools or were once used as school buildings in Orange County (not including UNC buildings)

HILLSBOROUGH TOWNSHIP SCHOOL / HIGH SCHOOL

300
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1922
/ Modified in
1936
Construction type: 
,
Local Historic District: 
National Register: 
Type: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 10/17/2016 - 3:06pm by gary

Comments

300
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1922
/ Modified in
1936
Construction type: 
,
Local Historic District: 
National Register: 
Type: 

 

(UNC Postcard Collection)

From the National Register nomination:

Constructed as the Hillsborough Township School, the Classical Revival-style brick building served as the public library for a period, but is currently used as the Richard E. Whitted Human Services Center. The cornerstone dates the original school building to 1922. This portion of the building is two stories on a raised basement and has a parapet roof. The school has a wide dentil and modillion cornice and replacement windows throughout with concrete sills. The middle seven bays of the seventeen-bay-wide façade project slightly with the stepped parapet. Centered on the façade, paired replacement doors have original sidelights and three-part transom. The entrance has a classical surround with pilasters supporting a wide entablature with dentil and modillion cornice. Modern paired brick staircases access the entrance and shelter a below-grade entrance to the basement.

A flat-roofed brick wing with ribbons of metal-frame windows projects from the right (east) elevation and connects to a two-story-with-raised-basement wing on the right. This c. 1933 wing matches the original school in detail with a brick veneer, projecting brick watertable, wide modillion cornice, and replacement windows with concrete sills. It is three bays wide and nine bays deep and the center bay on the façade features a basement-level entrance. There is a small, brick addition at the left (west) end of the façade. A two-story auditorium wing at the rear (north) features a brick veneer, parapet roof, and raised basement. It has replacement windows throughout with double-height windows on the main level surmounted by brick arches with concrete details. There are low brick walls along the front sidewalk and along other walkways on the property. The Classical Revival-style building is typical of the large and architecturally distinguished schools built during the consolidation era of the 1920s. It served grades 1-12 until Orange High School opened in 1962, then operated as an elementary school until 1980.

1943 Sanborn map excerpt

The school also had a machine / agricultural shop across W. Tryon Street.

1940s (Silhouette - Hillsborough High Yearbook.)

1958 (Silhouette - Hillsborough High Yearbook)

1922 Main Building, 08.14.2016 (G. Kueber)

1936 addition, 08.14.2016 (G. Kueber)

Add new comment

BINGHAM SCHOOL (MEBANE LOCATION)

,
Mebane
NC
Built in
1864
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Sat, 12/21/2019 - 4:45pm by gary

Comments

,
Mebane
NC
Built in
1864
Type: 
Use: 

 

From the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell:
 
In 1844 William James Bingham moved to Oaks, southwest of Hillsborough, to establish what he called a select classical and mathematical school. Bingham's illness in 1855 closed the school. In 1857, however, Bingham's sons William and Robert joined him in partnership, and the school reopened, with double the enrollment, as W. J. Bingham and Sons.
 
In 1863 the elder Bingham's illness and Robert Bingham's absence in the army obliged William Bingham the younger to take over operations. In 1864 all three Binghams and their families moved with the school to a new location on the North Carolina Railroad east of the town of Mebane, where it became officially known as the Bingham School.
 
In 1866 William James Bingham died, and his sons took over the school. William, Jr. died in 1873. His brother Robert made several improvements to the school, both in its buildings and curriculum. His efforts, however, were undermined by serious family complications regarding financial interests in the school, and in 1891 he established his own Bingham School on 250 acres overlooking the French Broad River in Asheville.
 
Advertisement, 1867
 
The buildings and grounds of Bingham School at Mebane as depicted in an engraving on the school's letterhead, 1885. North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina.
 
 
William Bingham’s widow, Owen White Bingham, operated an academy at the site that she named The William Bingham School. It was later a Presbyterian school operated by Henry Bingham, and even later by Preston L. Gray.
 

Barracks at Bingham School, Mebane, N.C.

Residence of Col. Gray, Bingham School, Mebane, N. C.

Field Day - Contest for Athletic Medal and Prizes - Commencement. The Bingham School, Mebane, NC

Dormitories, circa 1905

Circa 1905

Dining hall, circa 1905

Circa 1905

Circa 1905

Circa 1905

Circa 1905

Advertisement for "Bingham Camp," circa 1905

 

The only feature that remains from the school is the brick gateway that students would walk through upon boarding or disembarking from the train (HWY 70 was not constructed until the 1920s). See images below.

View south (S. Rankin, 2018)

View north; the school would have been in the distance (S. Rankin, 2018)

View west (S. Rankin, 2018)

View south-east (S. Rankin, 2018)

Add new comment

WEST END GRADED SCHOOL (SECOND)

111
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1938
/ Modified in
1970
,
1988
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Type: 
Use: 
,

The primary graded school for West Hillsborough from the 1930s to the 1960s

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Sun, 10/04/2020 - 1:22pm by gary

Comments

111
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1938
/ Modified in
1970
,
1988
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Type: 
Use: 
,

 

Composite image from screen captures of panning shot from H. Lee Waters film, 17 Oct 1939. (State Archives of North Carolina.)

 

Sanborn Map, 1943

The West End Graded School was built in 1938,  as a replacement for the West Hillsborough School that had stood on Bellvue Avenue. It was built on the site of the "Old Homeplace" noted on the subdivision map for West Hill - an older house that predated the neighborhood, and seems likely to have contributed the land for the formation of the neighborhood. The site is the peak of the 'West Hill' with an elevation of 605 feet.

Aerial view, 1955

The school consisted of a front hipped-roof block, apparently with dormer windows. Gabled wings extended north from the east and west sides of the buildings.

The school was decomissioned in the late 1960s, perhaps as part of changes to schools with integration. In 1970, the school lot and building were purchsed by Everett Kennedy for 5,000 and converted into 17 apartments, which he called the "Kenwood Apartments."

On February 20, 1988. The apartments/former school burned - two young boys (brothers aged 3 and 4)  and a man were killed in the fire. The fire "burned through the building in 20 minutes" per the fire chief. Only the very tips of the U-shaped structure were salvageable, as they had been built later and were separated from the rest of the structure by fire walls. 

School after the fire, Durham Morning Herald 02.21.1988

The remnants of the school were demolished, leaving only the three apartments in the 'tips' on a large parcel of land. Along with the remaining stone perimeter wall and stairs, the impression is of a somewhat bizarre set of structural elements if one is unaware of the origin story.

02.13.16 (G. Kueber)

As of August 2016, the land was owned by Jim Mathewson. A notice was sent to people within 500 feet of the property for a neighborhood meeting in advance of a proposed rezoning for "single and multifamily project" in early August, termed "Bellevue Place." Although I support redevelopment of this land, this prominent location in the neighborhood deserves a high-quality project - and I don't know if Jim Mathewson will deliver that.

The rezoning of this property failed, and as of 2020, Mathewson is still trying to sell the land to a developer to redevelop the property.

Add new comment

350 CALDWELL ST. / ORANGE COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL (SECOND) / NORTHSIDE ELEMENTARY

350
Chapel Hill
NC
Built in
1924
/ Modified in
1935
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Wed, 11/11/2020 - 4:40pm by SteveR

Comments

350
Chapel Hill
NC
Built in
1924
/ Modified in
1935
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

The Orange County Training School was built in 1924, on six and one-half acres of land donated by Henry Stroud between present-day McMaster and Caldwell streets in the Northside neighborhood. The building replaced the original Orange County Training School that had been located on Merritt Mill Road.
 
The Orange County School Board tried to cut back on funding for construction of the new school, and the community had to ensure that such materials as brick were used instead of cheaper materials like cinder block. The buiding's cornerstone was laid in a well-attended public ceremony September 1, 1924. The school's first principal was B. L. Bosman.
 
The total cost of the school was ,112.00, with the black community raising 0.00, the general public raising ,000.00, the white community raising ,112.00, and the Rosenwald fund providing ,500.00 towards its construction.
 
Circa 1925 (Fisk University Rosenwald Fund Card File Database)
 
Circa 1925 (Fisk University Rosenwald Fund Card File Database)
 
It was a nine-teacher type building plan, and its application number was 60-D. It was the largest Rosenwald in the county.
 
Excerpt of June 1925 Sanborn map
 
A new addition was added to the front of the school in 1935, which enabled the administration to separate the elementary school from the high school (as grades 1-12 attended the school). The school was renamed Lincoln High School in 1948 and Northside Elementary in 1951, when the new Lincoln High School was built on Merritt Mill Road.
 
The school closed shortly after mandatory integration of the district began in 1966. The building was then used mainly as office space until it was razed to make way for a new school building; an even newer (and quite large) school was built in 2013.
 
Gymnasium; March 10, 1954, (photo by Roland Giduz)
 
Gymnasium; March 10, 1954, (photo by Roland Giduz)
 
The original Orange County Training School cornerstone

Add new comment

OCTS, circa 1916Excerpt from the December 1915 Sanborn map of Chapel Hill

ORANGE COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL (FIRST)

122
,
Chapel Hill
NC
Cross street: 
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Fri, 08/19/2016 - 2:14pm by SteveR

Comments

122
,
Chapel Hill
NC
Cross street: 
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

 

The Orange County Training School began in 1913 as Hackney's Educational and Industrial School – which soon became known merely as the Hackney School and colloquially as "Hack's High School" – as a high school serving the local African American community. The school was located west of Merritt Mill Road (then also known as New Mill Road), between West Franklin Street and Cameron Avenue in Chapel Hill. 

OCTS, circa 1916

Orange County Training School (building on left), view north west, circa 1916 (Jackson Davis Collection of African American Educational Photographs, University of Virginia Library)

Excerpt from the December 1915 Sanborn map of Chapel Hill

Excerpt from the December 1915 Sanborn map of Chapel Hill

Within a few years of the school's beginning, funding became problematic; student tuition, publicly-provided funds, and contributions from local churches were inadequate to meet expenses. In 1916, members of the Chapel Hill School District Board of Directors apparently approached Dr. Hackney with the suggestion of consolidating the school and the local black primary and/or graded school (known as the "Quaker School," located to the north of the Hackney School, at the intersection of Merritt Mill Road and West Franklin Street). Dr. Hackney sold the property to the Board of Trustees for the school for ,300, who then sold it to Orange County. The school was then renamed the Orange County Training School, with a Mr. Malone as the school's first principal. 
 
On June 12, 1922, the school building, Flanner-Carr House, and several outbuildings burned down when some boarders in the Flanner-Carr House accidentally started a fire in the kitchen (the June 1925 Sanborn map of Chapel Hill shows only one structure still extant at this location). In 1924, after a year or two of students being taught in various locations throughout the area, Henry Stroud donated land between present-day McMaster and Caldwell streets in the Northside neighborhood, and the Orange County Training School was reestablished at the new site, in a new, brick Rosenwald-funded school building; its cornerstone was laid in a well-attended public ceremony September 1, 1924. 
 

 

Add new comment

HICKORY GROVE SCHOOL

,
Chapel Hill
NC
Type: 
Use: 

Orange County site OR493

Information courtesy of the Orange County DEAPR

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Thu, 12/19/2019 - 7:27am by SteveR

Comments

,
Chapel Hill
NC
Type: 
Use: 

 

The 1993 and 1996 surveys of Orange County do not mention the school. The NCSHPO historic property survey summary states that the school was opened circa 1907 (a date apparently taken from a 1999 newspaper article, which interviewed a previous owner, Henry “Rem” Malloy); however primary sources I can locate only mention a post-1937 structure; but there may have been an earlier Hickory Grove School. The structure is listed as a “two-room frame building” and “valued at ,000." 
 
A school by the same name is shown on the [allegedly] circa 1922 map as being northwest of Carrboro, but the 1918 soil map does not show it.
 
In the mid-1930’s, a replacement for Sunnyside School was desired by parents and the local school committee. In May 1937, at the monthly Orange County Board of Education (OCBOE) meeting, "Several colored people from the Hickory Grove school section appeared before the board and asked for a new building at a new location for that district."
 
In August 1937, the OCBOE purchased the empty land from Robert Wilson, and the property was expanded/added to in May 1941. This is the site for Hickory Grove School.
 
From the March 7, 1938 OCBOE minutes: "It was moved and carried that the bid of made by Joe McCauley for the Hickory Grove colored school property be rejected and that Mr. M.W. Durham be instructed to dispose of the property at a fair price if possible." This seems to refer to an older Hickory Grove school property being in existence.
 
In 1951, the Hickory Grove School was closed and was consolidated into the new Efland-Cheeks School. The property was sold in May 1952 by the OCBOE to James R. Farlow.
 
The school building was added to the NC Study List of/for historic sites in 1999.
 
The current owners purchased the school building in 1998.
 
From Carrboro (Images of America), by David A. Otto and Richard Ellington
 

Add new comment

The Quaker school building in 1916, view southQuaker School, 1915Photo of the Quaker School's students and teachers, circa 1905Photo of the Quaker School's students and teachers, circa 1910The former Quaker school building in its new location on Merritt's Mill Road, November 1917

QUAKER FREEDMEN'S SCHOOL

100
,
Chapel Hill
NC
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Sat, 08/20/2016 - 2:58pm by SteveR

Comments

100
,
Chapel Hill
NC
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

 

The Quaker school building in 1916, view south

The school building in 1916, view south

 

In January 1866, James Craig sold (from his father, John M. Craig's, estate) to Benjamin Craig and Green Cordal at auction "one lot of land...opposite the North West end Franklin Street in Chapel Hill," consisting of one acre for fifty dollars. Benjamin and Green, however, seems to have immediately donated the property to Elliston P. Morris, Anthony M. Kimber, and Richard Cadbury (Quakers from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) "for the Only proper use of the association of Friends of Philadelphia...for the relief of colored freemen forever" by August 1867. Cordal (a former slave) and Craig (a local farmer) likely had the school in mind when they purchased the land, as they immediately gave it to the Quakers. 
 
In her diary, Cornelia Phillips Spencer described an 1866 Fourth of July celebration, where the black residents of Chapel Hill "had a celebration... and they all marched out to dinner provided by themselves, and sat on the ground bought from the Craigs for their new school house." 
 
The Quakers sent George Dixon, his wife, and daughter to establish the school. Dixon later became Professor of Agriculture at the University of North Carolina during Reconstruction. 
 
Quaker School, 1915
An excerpt from the 1915 Sanborn map of Chapel Hill, showing the former Quaker school for Freedmen
(the "Primary School, Negro"), with West Franklin Street at lower right
 
Around 1890, the Quakers began "cooperating" with the Orange County school board, with them supplying the building and the county supplying the teachers and supplies. Prior to this, the school was a private school and no tax monies were utilized for the building, its teachers, or its students. However, this also meant that the local school board had no control over the teachers or students. 
 
By 1910, the county had added a second room to the school house, and the number of teachers was increased to three. In 1910, there were 130 pupils enrolled.
 
Photo of the Quaker School's students and teachers, circa 1905

Photo of the Quaker School's students and teachers, circa 1905

 

Photo of the Quaker School's students and teachers, circa 1910

Photo of the Quaker School's students and teachers, circa 1910

The school was in operation until 1917, when the school board consolidated it with the original Orange County Training School. Also at that time, the original section of the Quaker school house was moved to the campus of the Orange County Training School on Merritt's Mill Road (see photograph below). The building burned June 12, 1922, when a fire was accidentally started in the kitchen of an adjacent building. 
 
The section of the school building that remained at the end of West Franklin Street was moved out of the path of the new West Franklin/East Main/Highway 54 connector when it was constructed sometime between 1925 and 1929. 
 
The former Quaker school building in its new location on Merritt's Mill Road, November 1917
The former Quaker school building in its new location on Merritt's Mill Road, November 1917
 
In the 1940s, the remaining school building section (i.e. the early 1900s addition) in the school's original location was being used by the community, mainly as a temporary place for church services (the first black Methodist and Baptist churches in Chapel Hill were started in the building, as was Mt. Calvary Church). The property, however, was still owned by the Quakers. A 1944 map of Chapel Hill shows the "Quaker School" on the southern edge of the West Franklin-Main Street connector (a.k.a. Highway 54), the 1945 Sanborn map of Chapel Hill lists the building as a "Church (Colored)," and several plat maps from 1946 and 1948 show the school property. In March of 1946, the Friends Freedmans Association of Philadelphia sold most of the property to the Orange County School Board, and in October of 1947 transferred the remainder of the property (the small "triangle" cut off by the highway) to St. Paul's A.M.E. Church. The remaining building section was either demolished or moved by the early 1950s, when the current car wash building was constructed. 
 

Add new comment

SUNNYSIDE SCHOOL

,
Chapel Hill
NC
Construction type: 
Type: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Thu, 12/19/2019 - 7:28am by SteveR

Comments

,
Chapel Hill
NC
Construction type: 
Type: 

 

1919

The Sunnyside School was built or repurposed for African-American students.

In the mid-1930’s, a replacement for the Sunnyside School was desired by parents and the local school committee. In May 1937, at the monthly Orange County Board of Education meeting, "Several colored people from the Hickory Grove school section appeared before the board and asked for a new building at a new location for that district." The replacement was the Hickory Grove School, built in late 1937 or 1938.

Excerpt of 1922 school map of Orange County (shows the two Sunnyside schools; one for black and one for the white students)

Add new comment

CARRBORO GRADED SCHOOL / TOWN HALL

301
,
Carrboro
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1922
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Tue, 09/24/2019 - 12:13pm by gary

Comments

301
,
Carrboro
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1922
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 

09.24.2019 (G. Kueber)

Add new comment

West End School aerial view, 1920sWest End School interior, ca. 1950

WEST HILLSBOROUGH GRADED SCHOOL (FIRST)

,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1890-1910
/ Demolished in
1942-1970
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Sat, 08/13/2016 - 5:20pm by gary

Comments

,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1890-1910
/ Demolished in
1942-1970
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

"West Hillsborough School - Early 1900s" from History of the Town of Hillsborough 1754-1966, p. 152.

 

In late 1918, when the "Spanish flu" epidemic spread to the Eno and Bellevue mill districts, the mill officials opened a "diet kitchen" at the school, and it ran for about seven weeks. Elizabeth Cornelius, a Home Demonstration Agent, was in charge of the kitchen, with Emma Robertson and Mildred Durham working as her assistants. The chairman of West Hill, Mr. C. H. Robertson, supervised the project. Rebecca Wall was a volunteer. As many as 150 people were fed daily, with an average of 90 people fed per day. Not only those sick with influenza were fed, but the families with no one to cook or provide for them were also fed. During this time, Mrs. Emerson Graham and Allie Graham were nurses to the mill workers, and Miss Duncan, the "deaconess at the Mills," assisted. 

West End School aerial view, 1920s

West End School aerial view, view north, 1920s (school indicated by red arrow)

 

"The steeple was destroyed during a storm. Later the front of the building was remodeled. A walk-way and a little porch was added to this building."

A new brick West Hillsborough School was built on Benton/Margaret in 1938. On the 1943 Sanborn map, this buiding is labelled "Community Club House." - evidently it functioned as some sort of community center (mainly for the mill workers) after the relocation of the school.

West End School interior, ca. 1950

West End School auditorium interior, ca. 1950

West End School auditorium interior, ca. 1950

 

As of 2016, it's a vacant lot to the rear of the First Community Baptist Church on Eno Street.

07.31.2016 (G. Kueber)

Add new comment

Nash-Kollock School site, 1947

FREDERICK NASH HOUSE / NASH AND KOLLOCK SCHOOL

137
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1801
/ Modified in
1817
/ Demolished in
1947
Construction type: 
Local Historic District: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Sun, 12/04/2016 - 10:50am by gary

Comments

137
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1801
/ Modified in
1817
/ Demolished in
1947
Construction type: 
Local Historic District: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

 

Late 1800s (History of the Town of Hillsborough)

In ~1801, Duncan Cameron purchased two lots on the south side of Margaret Lane from two of his great uncles, Abner and Francis Nash. There he built a story-and-a-half house for himself and an adjacent law office as well as a kitchen, corn crib, dairy, well-house, smokehouse, wagon house, barn, carriage house, and stables.

In 1807 Cameron sold the five acre estate to his cousin Frederick Nash, who had moved from New Bern to Hillsborough that same year. Nash built a "large addition" to the house in 1817.

Looking east, likely early 20th c. (Wyatt Dixon Collection, Duke RBMC)

Frederick Nash died in 1858. The next year, his daughters Maria and Sarah opened the Nash and Kollock Select Boarding and Day School for Young Ladies. Maria had attended Miss Mary (Polly) W. Burke's School on East Queen Street in Hillsborough. Sally had taught briefly in the Burwell School and in 1858. She had also reputedly studied drawing for a short time in New York. Although Sally and Maria Nash "spent their entire lives from birth to death in the old gray unpainted house on Margaret Lane" in Hillsborough, as Ann Strudwick Nash remarked, they had spent their lives immersed in the intellectual and political culture of their well-known family.

The death of their father in 1858, coupled with the closing of the Burwell School in 1857 likely served as the impetii that spurred the sisters to open the Nash and Kollock school. They brought their young cousin Sara(h) Kollock (1826-1907) into the venture as well - ncpedia describes her as "a tiny lady of spectacular appearance and hair-trigger temper."

The school was successful, due in no small part to the connections of the Kollock-Nash family, attracting "Presbyterian and Episcopal 'young ladies' from old plantation homes up and down the eastern seaboard, even from Kentucky and New Orleans." The school much resembled the Burwell school in curriculum, religious orientation, and living arrangements.

Besides teaching Bible and arithmetic, Sally was the de facto head of school. She "met the public, conducted general school exercises, and supervised the servants and the operation of the dining room. Miss Maria taught English grammar and composition, her particular forte; Miss Sarah taught French and saw to all clerical work, advertising, and so forth connected with the school; and an assistant, a Miss Goodridge, taught history and geography. Music, painting, and drawing were taught by a succession of teachers who used old Cameron-Nash law office as a studio. Five pianos were in use, and the annual soirée musicale at the Masonic Hall received highly favorable newspaper reviews.

Late 1800s (Ladies in the Making [...] at the Select Boarding and Day School of the Misses Nash and Kollock, 1859-1890)

A few boys from the Nash and Strudwick families were admitted to the school during its primary tenure, but after the closure of the main school in 1890, Sarah Kollock operated a small day school of her own for boys and girls in the Cameron-Nash law office.

Likely 1920-1930. (Ladies in the Making [...] at the Select Boarding and Day School of the Misses Nash and Kollock, 1859-1890)

The use of the main Cameron-Nash house from 1890 until the 1940s is still unclear. However, it was, very unfortunately for a house of its historical pedigree, torn down in 1947.

Nash-Kollock School site, 1947

View south west; February, 1947

Nash-Kollock School site, 1947

View south west; February, 1947

Nash-Kollock School site, 1947

View south east; February, 1947

And replaced with a Southern States warehouse -

1996 (Susan Bellinger)

Town of Hillsborough inventory, 1990s.

The Southern States warehouse was torn down in 2008 and replaced with a large new Orange County government building

07.31.2016 (G. Kueber)

Add new comment

HILLSBOROUGH TOWNSHIP SCHOOL - SHOP

229
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1930-1940
/ Modified in
1946
/ Demolished in
1990-1995
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
,
Local Historic District: 
Type: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Fri, 11/06/2020 - 8:52am by gary

Comments

229
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1930-1940
/ Modified in
1946
/ Demolished in
1990-1995
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
,
Local Historic District: 
Type: 

 

Silhouette, 1938, Hillsborough High Yearbook.

The shop building for Hillsborough high school was used for elementary classrooms & vocational agricultural & shop building for the school; students below are part of Future Farmers of America.

Future Farmers of America, Silhouette, 1938, Hillsborough High Yearbook.

In 1946, a brick addition was built on the west side of the frame building, purportedly constructed by teachers, students, and local craftsmen; the addition had living quarters upstairs.

1990 (Susan Bellinger)

The building was torn down in the early 2000s.

Add new comment

CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL

,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1937
/ Demolished in
1958
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Local Historic District: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 10/17/2016 - 2:34pm by SteveR

Comments

,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1937
/ Demolished in
1958
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Local Historic District: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

Central High School, located in Hillsborough, was initially named the "Hillsborough High School for Negroes"; the 12-room main structure was built in July 1936, on property purchased from Louis Wilson and George Mayo. Mr. C. E. Hester was the first principal, and the school initially served first through eleventh grades (and a "secret" kindergarten class was also taught in its library for awhile). The school's library also served the local black community as a public library. 

Hillsborough High School for Negroes' main building, 1936

Graded School (Colored), 1943 (Sanborn)

Students, 1939 (H. Lee Waters excerpt)
 
Students, 1939 (H. Lee Waters excerpt)
 
Students, 1939 (H. Lee Waters excerpt)
 
Teachers, 1939 (H. Lee Waters excerpt)
 
Teachers, with Mr. Stanback on right, 1939 (H. Lee Waters excerpt)
 
Teachers and students, 1939 (H. Lee Waters excerpt)

In 1942, teacher Albert L. Stanback became principal, and had the school renamed Central High School in 1943. In the early 1950s, the elementary school grade classes were moved from Central's campus to a new segregated county school (Cedar Grove Elementary) north of Hillsborough. 

1955 aerial (UNC)

1957 (Blue Flame / Central High School Yearbook, 1957)

Buses, 1957

 

In 1958, Central High's main building burned down. In late 1958, the new gymnasium ("gymtorium") was built, and several famous musicians and perfomers performed at the opening: Ike and Tina Turner, Otis Redding, and Solomon Burke. 

 
A new classroom building was built in 1958, and a second classroom building, a vocational building, and an agricultural and band building were built between 1959 and 1962. After Principal Stanback's death in 1964 (his memorial service was held in the gymnasium), W. C. Blue acted as interim principal until a new principal was selected for the position; J. M. Murfee was selected, and served until 1969.
 
1961
 
1962
 
New classroom building, ~1965
 
 
Today, the enlarged campus is Hillsborough Elementary School.
 
08.13.2016 (G. Kueber)
 
 

Add new comment

MURPHY / MURPHEY SCHOOL

3729
,
Orange
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1923
/ Modified in
2010
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 07/04/2016 - 10:35pm by gary

Comments

3729
,
Orange
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1923
/ Modified in
2010
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,

 

Murphey School, 17 Oct 1939. Composite image from panning shot in H. Lee Waters film (State Archives of North Carolina)

From the Indy Week, 18 Aug 2010:

 

When the Murphey School (the "e" was dropped at some point in the '60s, hence Murphy School Road) was built in 1923, it exemplified the early 20th-century consolidation movement in North Carolina's public education system. Larger schools meant more students, which meant better opportunities for grade-based instruction. A bungalow behind the school, home to the Mental Health Association of Orange County for the last year, housed the staff.

An adjoining auditorium was built in 1936 as a Works Progress Administration project, and it functioned as a community center of sorts in the '40s and '50s. Legend has it that Bill Monroe, Roy Acuff, Ernest Tubb and Hank Snow played shows at the auditorium. The Murphey School closed in 1959, with the building initially leased to the Mt. Hermon Baptist Church before being sold and eventually turned into a nightclub.

07.17.11 (G. Kueber)

Add new comment

HILLSBOROUGH GRADED SCHOOL

,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1870-1885
/ Demolished in
1922
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local Historic District: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Wed, 11/11/2020 - 5:21pm by gary

Comments

,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1870-1885
/ Demolished in
1922
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Local Historic District: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

Circa 1915 (UNC Postcard Collection)

1919

The original public graded school for white students in Hillsborough. It was enlarged and renovated circa 1912. It was torn down circa 1922 to make way for the larger Hillsboro Township School.

1911

Add new comment

BINGHAM SCHOOL (OAKS)

6720
,
Oaks
NC
Built in
1790
People: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
National Register: 
Type: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Fri, 09/23/2016 - 2:07pm by gary

Comments

6720
,
Oaks
NC
Built in
1790
People: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
National Register: 
Type: 

 

NCSU / Preservation North Carolina Historic Architecture Slide Collection, 1965-2005

 

Add new comment

CAMERON PARK ELEMENTARY

240
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1956
/ Modified in
1989
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
National Register: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Mon, 11/07/2016 - 2:20pm by gary

Comments

240
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1956
/ Modified in
1989
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
National Register: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

07.23.2016 (G. Kueber)

Constructed on the grounds of Paul Cameron’s Burnside estate, this one-story, flat-roofed elementary school was built in 1956. The school consists of two parallel wings, each with exposed concrete framing and brick veneer between the concrete supports. The classroom sections of the building have brick on the lower one-fourth of the wall with stucco and grouped windows above. The cafeteria, at the north end of the right (west) wing has high ribbon windows, while the gymnasium, at the north end of the left (east) wing has full- height brick veneer. An entrance on the right elevation is sheltered by a projecting gabled canopy supported by metal posts and a flat-roofed canopy shelters the walkway on the left elevation. A narrow hyphen connects the two wings, creating an H-shaped plan and a flat-roofed addition at the rear (south) elevation (completed in 1989) has brick veneer on the lower part of the wall, metal-frame windows, and concrete-block on the upper part of the wall [HDC]. Utility areas north of the building are screened by brick walls. Lines of trees separate the school from St. Matthew’s Episcopal Church on the west and Montrose on the east. There are open athletic fields southwest of the school and the wooded area to the far south is part of the arboretum planted by Paul Cameron.

Add new comment

CHAPEL HILL GRADED SCHOOL (FIRST LOCATION)

,
Chapel Hill
NC

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Wed, 11/11/2020 - 5:27pm by SteveR

Comments

,
Chapel Hill
NC

 

The original Chapel Hill Graded School was the first (white) public school in Chapel Hill. It was located on the Road to Pittsboro (about where the UNC School of Social Work building is presently), in the former Canada School building. In May 1915, a bond election was scheduled to vote on buying a site for a new graded school, which was built on Franklin Street.

View southwest, circa 1912 (UNC-SHC)

Former school building (indicated by red arrow), 1915 Sanborn map excerpt

From 1925

Add new comment

HILLSBOROUGH MILITARY ACADEMY - COMMANDANT'S HOUSE

205
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1859
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
National Register: 
Type: 
,
Use: 
,

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Fri, 06/07/2019 - 11:05am by gary

Comments

205
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1859
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
National Register: 
Type: 
,
Use: 
,

 

07.02.16 (G. Kueber)

06.04.2019 (G. Kueber)

Add new comment

Fitzgerald map

WOODSIDE FARM (AND SCHOOL)

,
University
NC
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
,

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Fri, 09/23/2016 - 9:43am by SteveR

Comments

,
University
NC
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
,

 

On January 21, 1868, Robert G. Fitzgerald moved to Hillsborough from Pennsylvania to work as an associate teacher at the Quaker Freedman's School in Hillsboro.
 
In early March 1869, Fitzgerald received a letter from his family (then living in Pennsylvania) that they were moving to Hillsboro and would be there that month. They (his father Thomas, mother Sarah, and younger sisters Mary and Agnes) arrived by train in Hillsborough April 14, 1869. They immediately began looking for a local farm to purchase.
 
After looking at more than 20 farms, within nine days of their arrival they purchased property about six miles east of Hillsborough and one mile south of University Station. Robert’s journal entry for April 25 states that his parents “bought the plantation called Woodside. I wrote the deed for the plantation which father has purchased from Robert J. Jeffreys  containing 158 acres… . We get the plantation together with all the stock, farming utensils, household and kitchen furniture for 00.” Robert observed of the property “What I have seen of it I like very well, though the house is quite dingy.”
 
Fitzgerald map
1890s
 
 
According to Pauli Murray, granddaughter of Robert Fitzgerald, the property:
 
"...had been a beautiful place once. The two-story seven-room house stood in a grove of six huge oak trees at the top of a long slope which rolled gently down to the woods. At the bottom of the slope near the road was a little two-room cottage. It had fifty acres of heavy oak timber and another forty of smaller timber; the rest of the acreage was in farm land. There was a fair-sized orchard and when the Fitzgeralds bought it their stock consisted of a fine young mare called Fanny, a yoke of oxen, seven head of beef cattle, three cows and two calves… . It was one of the many farms in the South which had suffered from years of neglect during and after the war. The fields had not been cultivated in several years and the ground was hard and dry. There were large ditches and washed-out gullies everywhere. The house needed cleaning and repairs… the underbrush needed clearing. … [The Fitzgerald family] worked like blue blazes. Woodside Farm was transformed into a going concern in a matter of weeks under the white folks’ unbelieving eyes."
 
Robert moved to the farm after he finished the school year, and “turned farmer of amazing strength.” His father hired a farm hand, and he, Robert, and the hired hand “hauled wagonloads of stones and dirt to fill the ditches and gullies, cleared the fields, cut timber, hauled logs and rails, built fences and brought in a carpenter to repair the house.” They began raising corn, melons, cucumbers, peas, beans, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and oats. They also soon built a cellar and dug a well beneath the kitchen “so they would not have to walk to the spring for water.”
 
About the same time, Robert’s brothers Richard and William ("Billy") moved to Woodside Farm from Pennsylvania, and set up a brickyard at the farm. Additionally, Robert desired to return to teaching, and began building a schoolhouse (soon known as the Woodside School) on the farm, rushing to have it built by September 1869 for the new school year. There was a drought that year, and many of the Fitzgeralds’ crops failed. Financial needs compelled Cornelia to take jobs sewing for several families in Hillsborough.
 
to be continued...
 

Add new comment

ADAMS HOUSE / BURWELL SCHOOL

319
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1821
/ Modified in
1848
Architectural style: 
,
Construction type: 
Local Historic District: 
National Register: 
,
Type: 
Use: 
,

One of several 'female schools' in 19th century Hillsborough, The Burwell School was enlarged in 1848 from a 1821 dwelling built by William Adams. Reverend Burwell was the pastor of the Presbyterian Church

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Sun, 10/09/2016 - 3:25pm by gary

Comments

319
,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1821
/ Modified in
1848
Architectural style: 
,
Construction type: 
Local Historic District: 
National Register: 
,
Type: 
Use: 
,

 

Burwell School, undated  - likely early 20th c. (History of the Town of Hillborough 1754-1966)

From the Individual and District National Register nominations:

The oldest portion of the Burwell School was a two-story frame dwelling having a hall and parlor plan built early in the nineteenth century. It measured approximately 18 feet by 24 feet. In 1848 the Reverend Robert Burwell employed Captain John Berry to enlarge the house. Berry was the architect of the Orange County Courthouse in Hillsborough and is known to have enlarged and embellished many houses in the region. Under Berry the house Was given its present central hall plan, the two older rooms lying on one side of the hall and two new ones on the other. This created a new east-west orientation for the buildlng. The resulting principal five-bay facade facing east featured a on one-story shed porch running the full 52 feet. With its moulded weather- boards, green blinds and shed porch the building was far more closely related to older structures than to the then popular Greek Revival mode typified by Berry's Courthouse nearby. In the late nineteenth century the house was remodeled by Jule Gilmer Korner of Kernersville, a noted local artist and designer of the period. Some of Kerner's modifications included a bracket cornice, "gingerbread" porch, a new stair in the hall and several mantels including a marble one in the parlor. At the rear of the house is a picturesque two-room brick kitchen. In the garden an early brick privy has survived.

1971 (National Register nomination)

The Burwell School is sited on a large sloping lot facing North Churton Street at the southwest corner of the intersection with West Union Street. The terraced front lawn with plentiful hardwoods adds to the historic setting. Historically the property is known as lots 152 and 153. The original owner of this property was a local tavern-keeper and businessman named William Adams. Adams built the original structure in 1821 facing West Union Street. It was a two-story house with two rooms on each floor, which are still present today as the south rooms of the Burwell School. In 1836, the property was conveyed to the Trustees of the Presbyterian Church as a manse for the new pastor, Reverend Robert Burwell. In 1837, the Rev. Burwell and his wife, Margaret Anna Robertson Burwell, began a “Female School” in the manse, which remained in operation until 1857. In 1848, the Burwells purchased the house and hired John Berry to add the large north living room and the bedroom above it. In 1857, the Burwells closed the school and the house was occupied briefly by refugees from Edenton during the Civil War. Dr. J. S. Spurgeon purchased the home in 1895 and his family remodeled the home and occupied it until 1965. At that time it was purchased and restored by the Historic Hillsborough Commission, who still own the property.

From Gardens of Old Hillsborough, 1971

Reverend Robert Burwell and his wife, Margaret Anna, conducted their well-known "Female School" here from 1837 to 1857. The gracious old house looks down across a great sweep of green lawn shaded by a magnificent Linden, a great Sugar Maple and a gnarled Osage Orange. The property is in process of restoration by the Historic Hillsborough Commission.

At one time, this was the home of the J. S. Spurgeon family. Mrs. Spurgeon has given us an account of the garden as it was in the early 1900s.

South of the house, running north and south, there was a wide flower border, which separated the lawn in front from the well-kept vegetable garden at the rear. This bed contained old-fashioned everblooming red roses (probably China roses) red peonies, and spring bulbs of many varieties. This was the only flower bed in the garden.

A long gravel walk connected the front of the house with Churton Street. Its outline can still be traced. A cedar rail fence protected the garden along the length of Churton Street, and tall cedars grew at either side of the front gate. Quantities of red tulips and daffodils were planted along the south boundary.

A flower pit was a necessary feature of the old garden. Within its capacious brick walls many ornamental plants were carried over the winter, to be brought out in warm weather to decorate the front of the house. Among these were geraniums, begonias, calla lilies, ferns, and large plumbago plants, grown in wooden tubs. Two citrinas were also carried over in large half-barrels in the pit, their "lemonessence" much appreciated at all seasons.

There were two springs in the garden, one directly at the back of the house fed a small stream, its banks planted to spring bulbs, blooming with the Virginia Bluebells and yellow cowslips. A second spring at the lower side of the vacant, or "lucerne lot" supplied a small marsh, where bull rushes grew and there were masses of Royal Fern.

Several old roses have remained for our pleasure. Particularly interesting is the bush musk rose, undoubtedly of great age, and standing seven feet high. It produces in spring clusters of creamywhite double Bowers, with a characteristic honey-musk fragrance.

Old descriptions of the plantings here are being closely followed in the restoration of the grounds.

 

Add new comment

Canada School, 1890s

THE CANADA SCHOOL (FIRST LOCATION)

,
Chapel Hill
NC
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Fri, 11/06/2020 - 5:37pm by SteveR

Comments

,
Chapel Hill
NC
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 
,

 

The original Canada School was a private school in Chapel Hill, serving white students. It was located at the southwest corner of Franklin and Columbia streets, where the Baptist Church is located. It was formerly a hotel. The school opened in September 1896 under the supervision of UNC graduate John W. Canada.
 
Canada School, 1890s
View west, 1890s
 
1911 Sanborn map excerpt (school building is circled in red)
 
School staff, 1898
 
Students, circa 1900
 
Circa 1900, a new building was built for the school on Pittsboro Street, but John Canada moved to Denver, Colorado before it was completed. The former school building became a boarding house, and was later demolished to make way for the Baptist Church.
 
1915 Sanborn map excerpt (former school building is circled in red)
 

Add new comment

MISS HEARTT'S SCHOOL

,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1840-1890
/ Demolished in
1925-1942
Construction type: 
Local Historic District: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Sun, 08/21/2016 - 8:19am by gary

Comments

,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1840-1890
/ Demolished in
1925-1942
Construction type: 
Local Historic District: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

1900-1915 (History of the Town of Hillsborough: 1754-1966)

 

Add new comment

HILLSBOROUGH ACADEMY

,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1845
/ Demolished in
1880
People: 
Construction type: 
,
Local Historic District: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Thu, 09/22/2016 - 1:11pm by gary

Comments

,
Hillsborough
NC
Cross street: 
Built in
1845
/ Demolished in
1880
People: 
Construction type: 
,
Local Historic District: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

From NCPedia, by Jean Anderson

Hillsborough Academy was the name given various schools established by prominent citizens of the town of Hillsborough over a period of 80 years. A school chartered in 1779 as Science Hall seems to have evolved into Hillsborough Academy by the time it opened in 1785. Subscriptions were raised among a number of North Carolinians for its establishment and the purchase of confiscated Loyalists' land, but the money was used only to repair the old Anglican church for use as the school building. The first principals of the academy were Benjamin Perkins and Solomon Pinto, both graduates of Yale. Zadoc Squire replaced Pinto as principal in 1787. The board of trustees included such illustrious eighteenth-century figures as William Hooper, Nathaniel Rochester, Thomas Hart, John Kinchen, Thomas Burke, James Hogg, and William Johnston. The curriculum had a practical bent but included classical subjects as well. Never a thriving institution, the school seems to have closed in 1790 after Zadoc's death.

A second classical academy with the same name opened a decade later. In 1801 Hillsborough Academy was advertised as a school for "youth of both sexes" by trustees Walter Alves, William Kirkland, William Whitted, William Cain, and Duncan Cameron. The first principal, Andrew Flinn, was a graduate of the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. With an assistant, Flinn taught the classics, English, the "three R's," bookkeeping, and "the plainer branches of mathematics." Little is known of the female department beyond its existence under the direction of Elizabeth Russell in 1812 and a Miss Farly in 1815. The girls were taught needlework, painting, and drawing in addition to the elementary subjects. Thereafter no mention is made of the school's commitment to female education. For more than 25 years, the school for boys had a precarious existence under a series of short-lived principals.

The Hillsborough Academy was again chartered in 1814, and in 1815 a Mr. Graham, not otherwise identified, was principal. In 1818 another Presbyterian minister, John Knox Witherspoon, became headmaster. Strict Presbyterianism assumed a prominent role in the curriculum; boys were required to attend morning and evening worship as well as church on Sunday, on which day they had to refrain from every kind of amusement including riding, walking, visiting, or studying. A new headmaster, John Rogers, served from 1821 through 1824. In 1825 another Presbyterian minister, the Reverend William Hooper, son of the signer of the Declaration of Independence of the same name, took over.

With the arrival in 1827 of William James Bingham, the son of Presbyterian minister William Bingham, however, the school began its upward ascent to fame if not fortune. From 1827 until 1843, under the younger Bingham's direction, the school became synonymous with his name. He showed his mettle in 1839 when a student plot to resist authority was discovered. He accosted the renegades and commanded submission, routing the ringleader after the boy came at him with a pistol. Known as "the Napoleon of schoolmasters," Bingham kept the boys in line and the standards high. Enrollment was more than 100 students.

When Bingham moved to the country to open his own school in 1844, Hillsborough Academy continued under his brother John Archibald Bingham and coprincipal James H. Norwood, both of whom had taught there. The next year they resigned, Norwood opened his own school, and John Witherspoon returned to head the academy. He had as an assistant James H. Horner, a former student and later a noted schoolmaster himself.

Just as the old academy was floundering without a strong principal, it became subsumed in the Caldwell Institute, the creation in 1836 of the Orange Presbytery, under principal Alexander Wilson. A serious epidemic of typhoid fever had prompted Caldwell to leave Greensboro and relocate. Hillsborough citizens paid for the refurbishment of the academy building to accommodate the new school, which at first thrived but by 1849 had declined. Wilson resigned in 1850 and moved to Alamance County to open a school of his own.

The Hillsborough Military Academy used the brick school building in 1851 while their own campus was under construction.  In approximately 1880, the school was deconstructued and the bricks were used to build the Webb tobacco company on Court Street downtown. (Which was in turn demolished in 1966.)

08.13.2016 (G. Kueber)

Add new comment

CEDAR GROVE ACADEMY

,
Cedar Grove
NC
Built in
1845
/ Demolished in
1900-1980
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Thu, 09/08/2016 - 1:12pm by gary

Comments

,
Cedar Grove
NC
Built in
1845
/ Demolished in
1900-1980
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

~1900 (History of the Town of Hillsborough)

Add new comment

NCIHFCG 1926NCIHFCG1NCIHFCG2

NORTH CAROLINA INDUSTRIAL HOME FOR COLORED GIRLS ("EFLAND HOME")

,
Efland
NC
Built in
1921-1925
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

Comments

No comments yet.

Add new comment

In tours

Last updated

  • Sat, 11/14/2020 - 11:37am by SteveR

Comments

,
Efland
NC
Built in
1921-1925
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 
Type: 

 

The following information was taken from A Historical Summary of the North Carolina Industrial Home for Colored Girls Or “The Efland Home” by Valerie Wade, May 2014.
 
The North Carolina Industrial School for Colored Girls (Efland Home) was located on approximately 140 acres of farmland in Efland. Led by Charlotte Hawkins Brown, the North Carolina chapter of the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) purchased the land in 1921. The farm extended just south of the North Carolina Railroad (then called the Southern Railroad) to old Highway 10. Highway 70, which lies north of the property, was built in 1927. 
NCIHFCG 1926
1926
 
1926 (photo via North Carolina Social Program for Negro's, State Board of Public Welfare)
 
The geographical location of the Efland Home is as important as the building itself. As early as 1919, the NACW attempted to work with the state government to secure a location for a reformatory for African American girls. The reformatory had to be distant enough from town to quell concerns from residents, but close enough to facilitate the transportation of students and supplies. In November 1919, Charlotte Hawkins Brown wrote, “We are about to enter into a bargain for the old government barracks west of Hillsboro, containing 147 acres of land, fairly good buildings, price ,000.” After extensive fundraising, the NACW was able to obtain a mortgage and open the reformatory.
 
The Efland Home began operating in 1925 after the NC Federation of Colored Women's Clubs campaigned for years for the establishment of the institution. A summary of the reformatory's history may be found on pages 271-276 of Dr. Leslie Brown's book "Upbuilding Black Durham: Gender, Class, and Black Community Development in the Jim Crow South" and Chapter 3 of Dr. Susan Cahn's "Sexual Reckonings: Southern Girls in a Troubling Age."
 
As president of the North Carolina chapters of the NACW, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, the influential North Carolina educator, was responsible for the establishment of the Efland Home.
 
Though the reformatory struggled financially, it quickly became an essential facet of social work for poor children in the state. For years, North Carolinians of all backgrounds sent money to Brown in support of the Efland Home. Some years, the state sent the school ,000 to assist with operations, but this was far below the appropriations for Samarcand Manor and the Stonewall Jackson School [i.e. other reformatory schools]. Ultimately, the Efland Home supported itself with its own farm and community donations. The girls there raised produce, cows, and chickens. They learned sewing, canning, and other skills. For Christmas and other major holidays, local NACW members rallied nearby citizens to contribute gifts, clothing, and school supplies to the girls.
 
Brown and the North Carolina NACW never intended for the Efland Home to operate as a private institution for the long-term. Their hope was that the
state would recognize the validity of the institution and consequently support it in a similar fashion as Samarcand Manor. Monetary support from the state would be more robust and consistent than donations, but it was not until about 1939 that this transition materialized. The Efland Home survived on meager resources until 1943, when it closed. In 1944, it finally received state sponsorship, and operations were moved from the overcrowded building at Efland to Rocky Mount, NC.

From "A Historical Summary of the North Carolina Industrial Home for Colored Girls Or 'The Efland Home'" - May 2014

 

Certificate of Incorporation:

NCIHFCG1

NCIHFCG2

 

For the property's Nationa Register form, see: files.nc.gov/ncdcr/nr/OR2815.pdf

Add new comment