WAR/MILITARY

WAR/MILITARY


War, wartime, and military sites in OC

HILLSBOROUGH MILITARY ACADEMY

HILLSBOROUGH MILITARY ACADEMY


A short lived school on the west side of Hillsborough tied to the growth of the Confederate insurrection; while it reopened after the Civil War, it never quite found its footing.

From http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~orangecountync/places/hm...

The Hillsborough Military Academy was the idea of Moses A. Curtis (at the time the minister of St. Matthew's Episcopal Church in Hillsborough, and whose son later became a cadet and was killed at the Battle of Bentonville during the Civil War), to ensure that suitable local boys could obtain a decent education, as he felt the opportunity to do so was lacking in the area. In Late July 1858, he, Charles Courtney Tew (an 1846 graduate of South Carolina's military academy The Citadel), and A.S. Galliard searched Hillsborough and its environs for a suitable site for a military academy, which would be the 'Tarheel Citadel.'

They located a 40 acre tract ~1 1/2 miles west of Hillsborough, close to the new North Carolina Railroad line, and obtained it for the school site. They engaged architect John A. Kay of Columbia, South Carolina (who had a hand in designing the South Carolina State House) to design the barracks and the commandant's house, and they would be built by local builders John Berry and Henry Richards.

The academy's neo-Gothic barracks was 3 storeys high, 215 feet long by 45 feet wide, and able to house 125 cadets, instructors, and classrooms.  It was brick with "massive" turrets flanking a central entrance. Large wooden verandas were built along the rear (north side) of the building. It cost ,000 to build, and was completed in September 1860.

On September 2, 1858 Tew advertised in the Hillsborough Recorder that the academy would open January 12, 1859. Between the academy's opening and the barracks' completion in September 1860, cadets lived in temporary wooden structures on the academy's grounds or boarded with local families, and classes were held at the Hillsborough Academy.

In June of 1860 Hillsborough Male Academy president JW Norwood wrote in the Hillsborough Recorder:

"Col. Tew who has occupied the buildings of the Hillsborough Male Academy, with his flourishing Military School, is about to remove to his own commodious and elegant establishment, thus leaving the Academy vacant."

In March of 1859, Tew's residence, known as "headquarters" or the "Commandant's House" was completed enough for Tew and his family to occupy. Like the barracks building, it was neo-Gothic in style, with turrets and crennelations along the roofline. However, the interior was likely not completed until 1870.

In addition to the commander's house and the barracks, the academy's campus eventually included a mess hall, a social hall, storeroom, doctor's office (the academy's doctor was Edmund Strudwick), and infirmary. The academy's first teachers were A.S. Galliard and Major William H. Gordon (an 1852 graduate of VMI).
 

HILLSBOROUGH MILITARY ACADEMY - BARRACKS BUILDING

,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1860
/ Demolished in
1938
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Type: 
Use: 

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Last updated

  • Tue, 11/01/2016 - 12:31pm by gary

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,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1860
/ Demolished in
1938
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Type: 
Use: 

 

1870s (North Carolina Collection via UNC; sourced from http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~orangecountync/places/hm...)

1870s (North Carolina Collection via UNC; sourced from http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~orangecountync/places/hm...)

Rear of the barracks building, 1870s (North Carolina Collection via UNC; sourced from http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~orangecountync/places/hm...)

Rear of the barracks building, 1870s (North Carolina Collection via UNC; sourced from http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~orangecountync/places/hm...)

Rendering of the Barracks and Commandant's House, 1867 (North Carolina Collection via UNC; sourced from http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~orangecountync/places/hm...)

 

A too-fuzzy and too-small picture taken from Occoneechee Mountain, looking northwest, c. 1910. The train is going by and the barracks building is visible in the background

(North Carolina Collection via UNC; sourced from http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~orangecountync/places/hm...)

 

Historic American Buildings Survey, Archie A. Biggs, Photographer June 29, 1937 FRONT ELEVATION. - The Barracks, Barracks Road, Hillsborough, Orange County, NC (Library of Congress)

Location of the barracks building (the grove of trees,) 07.02.2016 (G. Kueber)

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HILLSBOROUGH MILITARY ACADEMY - COMMANDANT'S HOUSE

205
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1859
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
National Register: 
Type: 
,
Use: 
,

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  • Fri, 06/07/2019 - 11:05am by gary

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205
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1859
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
National Register: 
Type: 
,
Use: 
,

 

07.02.16 (G. Kueber)

06.04.2019 (G. Kueber)

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HILLSBOROUGH MILITARY ACADEMY - CHAPEL

202
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1859
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 

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  • Fri, 07/08/2016 - 9:05am by gary

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202
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1859
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

07.02.2016 (G. Kueber)

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The academy's mission was to "prepare the cadet not only to serve his country in time of crisis, but more importantly, to serve his community as a civilian." The academy provided instruction in scientific and engineering courses, and in military tactics and drill. Entrance requirements included an ability to read, write, and perform "with facility, arithmetical operations involving the four grand rules." Its curriculum was modeled after West Point's, the Virginia Military Institute's (VMI), and the Citadel's.

The academic year ran from January to November, and cost the cadet's family 5, payable in three installments. The fee provided each cadet with uniform items, room and board, instruction, textbooks, and medical care. By January 1860, 107 cadets from eight Southern states had enrolled. The academy was initially privately funded, but in 1861 became chartered by the North Carolina State legislature, designating it a public institution (the charter didn't, however, provide free education for students who were unable to pay).

Letters from students tell of their enjoyment in fraternizing with the girls at the Nash and Kollock school in town.

The school operated only for a brief period before the outbreak of the Civil War in April of 1861. Tew was one of the few experienced military commanders available to North Carolina, and was quickly pressed into service by the Confederacy. He sold a pair of brass cannons recently purchased for the Academy to the state of North Carolina and prepared a list of armaments necessary to defend the state. Tew himself was assigned to Fort Macon in May 1861 and the Academy became a "recruitment center." He left the academy on May 20, 1861, assigned to command the 2nd North Carolina volunteers.

John M. Richardson became acting superintendent of the academy. Given the number of instructors participating in the war, however, it became a struggle to keep the school operational. Late in 1861, Richardson was forced to send students home for the remainder of the term. The facility became an ordnance manufacturing and storage facility, as well as a camp of instruction and recruiting area for the military.

In March of 1862, the academy was reopened and was commanded by Major William Gordon a VMI graduate. He pledged that "other Competent Officers have also been secured, and no further interruption of dutes need be apprehended."

However, Colonel Tew, who had been placed in command of the 2nd NC after the death of George Anderson, was killed at the Battle of Sharpsburg/Antietam in September 1862 by a single shot to the head.

Those running the academy learned of his death on November 5, 1862; the Hillsborough Recorder ran a front page eulogy composed by a meeting of Hillsborough citizens at the courthouse - included were Paul Cameron, Rev. Curtis, Dr. Pride Jones, M.E. Manly, H.K. Nash, and Thomas B. HIll. (Both Curtis and Manly would lose a son in the war, both of whom were HMA cadets.)

Gordon attempted to keep the school running, but potential cadets were more interested in participating in the war than in being students at a military academy. It continued to limp along somewhat gamely during the war, supplying officers and enlisted men for the Confederate military.

In May of 1865, a few weeks after the Bennett Place surrender, students were dismissed and Major Gordon as well, replaced temporarily by a Major White, formerly of the Citadel, who was unable to keep things running and left as well.

In 1866, the Academy reopened with General Raleigh Edward Colston at the helm. The school was renamed the North Carolina Polytechnic and Military Institute. However, in the wake of the Civil War, funding was scarce, and the Reconstruction government was understandably hostile to the school. Colston attempted to reduce staff and raise fees to 5 a year. The school languished, however, in no small part due to the loss of an animating military fervor and purpose that had been present prior to and during the war.

Colston resigned and left for Wilmington (where he would start another school). Mrs. Tew, widow of the Colonel, moved into the vacant upper floors of the Barracks and closed the school. In 1870, Mrs. Tew died and the school was auctioned; Paul Cameron bought the entire campus for 00. He either finished or made extensive improvements to the Commandant's House, in part to attract a new superintendent for the school. He began to woo Col. James Hunter Horner of Oxford, who ran the Horner and Graves in that city, to move his school to the HMA campus. Cameron wrote about the campus

"all [buildings] need some repairs and it is my purpose to put it all in good condition - at the very earliest day and offer it to the Military School - I shall seek only a reasonable rent - I desire to make it a success - in the hands of a man of high character."

 
Trench map 1918Trenches location 1918UNC trenches 1918UNC trenches 1918UNC trenches 1918

WWI PRACTICE TRENCHES

street: ,
Chapel Hill
NC
Built in
1917
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 

 

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  • Thu, 09/29/2016 - 10:53am by SteveR

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street: ,
Chapel Hill
NC
Built in
1917
Object Type: 
Object Subtype: 
Construction type: 
Neighborhood: 

 

Constructed in 1917 and 1918 on the eastern edge of campus for the training of UNC students for service in the US military during World War One.

Their identification on maps is often mistaken for the defensive position(s) constructed by the retreating Confederate forces in 1865, although that site is located nearby the 1917-1918 training trenches.

All images courtesy UNC

Trench map 1918

Trench map 1918

Trenches location 1918Location of trenches, 1918 USGS topographic map excerpt

UNC trenches 1918

UNC trenches 1918

UNC trenches 1918

UNC trenches 1918

UNC trenches 1918

UNC trenches 1918

UNC WWI trenches

UNC WWI trenches

 

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DicksonHouse_1950s.jpgDicksonHouse_outbuilding_1960s.jpgdicksonhouse_aftermove.jpgDicksonHouse_OriginalLocation_071711.jpg

ALEXANDER DICKSON HOUSE (ORIGINAL LOCATION)

,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1775-1800
/ Modified in
1982
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 

Site of Gen. Johnson's encampment in Hillsborough before the largest troop surrender of the Civil War

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  • Mon, 10/17/2016 - 2:07pm by gary

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,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1775-1800
/ Modified in
1982
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
Type: 
Use: 

 

Dickson House, 1950s (Hillsborough, North Carolina General Development Plan, 1968-1988)

DicksonHouse_1950s.jpg

1950s

DicksonHouse_outbuilding_1960s.jpg

Outbuilding on original Dickson Farm, 1960s.

Plaque reads:

"General Johnston's Officer and Orderly Room

Here took place the discussions regarding terms of surrender by General Johnston, Confederate Secretary of War Breckinridge, Mr. Mallory, and Confederate Governor Vance. From here, General Johnston with his staff rode along the old Hillsboro-Durham Road April 27 to make his final surrender of his army to General Sherman."

The house was moved in 1982.

dicksonhouse_aftermove.jpg

After move to downtown Hillsborough, 1982.

(Courtesy NCSU)

The original site is now a Wal-Mart. The restored house serves as the Hillsborough Visitor Center.

 

DicksonHouse_OriginalLocation_071711.jpg

Approximate original location of the Alexander Dickson house, with historic "Civil War Trails" plaque in the foreground.

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MASONIC LODGE / EAGLE LODGE NO. 19 (71) AF AND AM

142
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1823
/ Modified in
1862
Builders: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Local Historic District: 
National Register: 
Type: 

The oldest extant Masonic Lodge in the state of North Carolina, this simple Greek Revival structure was built on the site of Edmund Fanning's house in 1823.

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  • Fri, 12/20/2019 - 1:21pm by gary

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142
,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1823
/ Modified in
1862
Builders: 
Architectural style: 
Construction type: 
,
Local Historic District: 
National Register: 
Type: 

 

(UNC Postcard Collection)

From the National Register Nomination:

The Eagle Lodge is undoubtedly one of the most architecturally significant landmarks in Hillsborough. Designed by the state architect, Captain William Nichols, the Greek Revival-style building is believed to have been built by local brickmasons, John Berry and Samuel Hancock. The two-story, hip-roofed structure is roughly forty-feet square and is constructed of solid brick laid in a Flemish bond. It is three bays wide and three bays deep with windows concealed behind original louvered wood shutters and window openings having flat brick arches and stone windowsills. The double-leaf, four-panel door is centered on the façade with a stone threshold and is sheltered by a one-bay-wide, pedimented portico supported by grouped Ionic columns. A plaque to the left of the entrance commemorates those who served in World War I. An original glassed-in observatory said to have pre-dated President Caldwell's 1831 observatory at UNC, was removed from the roof in 1862 and the current hipped roof was built. A low, brick retaining wall extends along the sidewalk.

(UNC Postcard Collection)

(UNC Postcard Collection)

The building stands on Lot 23, the site of Edmund Fanning's house. The Eagle Lodge No. 19, chartered in 1791, remained active until 1799. It was dormant until 1819 when the Masons revived but with a new number, No. 71. Money was raised for the building through an authorized public lottery that ran from 1821 until 1832, empowered to raise 00. The cornerstone was laid on November 23, 1823. The property was conveyed to the Lodge in 1824, after the building was erected. During the mid-nineteenth century the building was called the King Street Opera house and was used as a town meeting place. The building appears on the 1888 Sanborn map as the “King Street Opera House” and “Masonic Hall 2nd.” In 1932, the original lodge number, 19, was reinstated. The Masonic hall is still owned and used by the Eagle Lodge, Number 19, A.F. and A.M. A gravestone that reads “George Doherty, May 30, 1732 – April 23, 1793, First Secretary, Eagle Lodge No. 19 A. F. & A. M” is embedded in the ground at the edge of the front lawn, next to the driveway. Doherty’s death predates the construction of the building, so it is unclear whether he is buried on the site.

The building was used as a makeshift hospital at the very end of the Civil War (1865) by a local ladies' aid society.

(HABS - from Library of Congress, June 29, 1937)

(HABS - February 1965; retrieved from LOC)

Rear of Structure. (HABS - February 1965; retrieved from LOC)

1966 (Hillsborough, North Carolina General Development Plan, 1968-1988)

07.02.16 (G. Kueber)

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BINGHAM SCHOOL (MEBANE LOCATION)

,
Mebane
NC
Built in
1864
Type: 
Use: 

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  • Sat, 12/21/2019 - 4:45pm by gary

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,
Mebane
NC
Built in
1864
Type: 
Use: 

 

From the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell:
 
In 1844 William James Bingham moved to Oaks, southwest of Hillsborough, to establish what he called a select classical and mathematical school. Bingham's illness in 1855 closed the school. In 1857, however, Bingham's sons William and Robert joined him in partnership, and the school reopened, with double the enrollment, as W. J. Bingham and Sons.
 
In 1863 the elder Bingham's illness and Robert Bingham's absence in the army obliged William Bingham the younger to take over operations. In 1864 all three Binghams and their families moved with the school to a new location on the North Carolina Railroad east of the town of Mebane, where it became officially known as the Bingham School.
 
In 1866 William James Bingham died, and his sons took over the school. William, Jr. died in 1873. His brother Robert made several improvements to the school, both in its buildings and curriculum. His efforts, however, were undermined by serious family complications regarding financial interests in the school, and in 1891 he established his own Bingham School on 250 acres overlooking the French Broad River in Asheville.
 
Advertisement, 1867
 
The buildings and grounds of Bingham School at Mebane as depicted in an engraving on the school's letterhead, 1885. North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina.
 
 
William Bingham’s widow, Owen White Bingham, operated an academy at the site that she named The William Bingham School. It was later a Presbyterian school operated by Henry Bingham, and even later by Preston L. Gray.
 

Barracks at Bingham School, Mebane, N.C.

Residence of Col. Gray, Bingham School, Mebane, N. C.

Field Day - Contest for Athletic Medal and Prizes - Commencement. The Bingham School, Mebane, NC

Dormitories, circa 1905

Circa 1905

Dining hall, circa 1905

Circa 1905

Circa 1905

Circa 1905

Circa 1905

Advertisement for "Bingham Camp," circa 1905

 

The only feature that remains from the school is the brick gateway that students would walk through upon boarding or disembarking from the train (HWY 70 was not constructed until the 1920s). See images below.

View south (S. Rankin, 2018)

View north; the school would have been in the distance (S. Rankin, 2018)

View west (S. Rankin, 2018)

View south-east (S. Rankin, 2018)

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SILENT SAM

street:
Chapel Hill
NC
Built in
1913
Construction type: 
Site is located on the UNC campus

 

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  • Mon, 08/24/2020 - 11:40am by SteveR

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street:
Chapel Hill
NC
Built in
1913
Object Type: 
Object Subtype: 
Construction type: 

 

(Some of the below text is from Wikipedia)

The Confederate Monument, University of North Carolina, commonly known as Silent Sam, is a bronze statue of a Confederate soldier by Canadian sculptor John A. Wilson, which stood on McCorkle Place at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) from 1913 until it was pulled down by protestors in 2018.

It was erected June 2, 1913 by the North Carolina chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC).

1913 Erection ceremony

Establishing a Confederate monument at a North Carolina university became a goal of the state UDC in 1907. UNC approved the group's request in 1908 and, with funding from UNC alumni, the UDC, and the university. At the unveiling on June 2, 1913, local industrialist and UNC Trustee Julian Carr gave a speech espousing white supremacy, while North Carolina Governor Locke Craig, UNC President Francis Venable, and members of the UDC and other "Lost Cause" proponents praised the sacrifices made by students who volunteered to fight for the Confederacy.

One featured speaker at the monument dedication was UNC alumni Henry London. London became quite active in the "Lost Cause" movement in the late 19th century. At the dedication, London extolled the bravery of the southern white men who answered the "noble cause" of the Confederacy without hesitation. Ironically, London avoided the draft and esentially hid out on the UNC campus to avoid service during the war.

The speaker who has attracted the most subsequent attention was Orange County native Julian Carr, a prominent industrialist, UNC alumnus and Trustee, former Confederate enlisted soldier, and the largest single donor towards the construction of the monument. His (written) dedication speech can be found online here: https://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/00ddd/id/121638/rec/1

Excerpt from UNC Alumni Review, p. 121

"Silent Sam in Studio by John A. Wilson." (Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management, John Wilson Scrapbook, via Wikipedia)

 

The program for the unveiling simply referred to the statue as "the Confederate Monument", with the name "Soldiers' Monument" also being used around the same time. The name "Silent Sam" is first recorded in 1954, in the student newspaper The Daily Tar Heel.

Beginning in the 1960s, the statue faced opposition on the grounds of its racist message, and it was vandalized several times. Protests and calls to remove the monument reached a higher profile in the late 2010s, and in 2018 UNC Chancellor Carol L. Folt described the monument as detrimental to the university, and said that she would have the statue removed if not prohibited by state law.
 
On August 20, 2018, Silent Sam was toppled by protesters, and later that night removed to a secure location by university authorities. The pedestal base and inscription plaques were removed on January 14, 2019.
 

Circa 1915 (via UNC)

1918 (via UNC)

1918 (via UNC)

 

For additional and more current information, please see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_Sam

 

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REGULATOR MARKER

street: ,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1963

 

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  • Sat, 08/13/2016 - 6:31pm by gary

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street: ,
Hillsborough
NC
Built in
1963
Object Type: 

 

Original marker, circa 1920s

Second marker (postcard excerpt), 1920s

Third Marker, 07.23.2016 (G. Kueber)

Reads:

"On this spot were hanged by order of a Tory Court, June 19, 1771, Merrill, Messer, Matter, Pugh and two other Regulators. Placed by the Durham-Orange Committee, North Carolina Society Colonial Dames in America, April 1963,"

 

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